Acronyms and Unit Abbreviations

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a-Si:H hydrogenated amorphous silicon
AM air mass
AMOLED Active Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Displays
AO All-Optical
AOS All-Optical Switching
AOS All-Optical Signal Processing
ASF Anderson, Schultz, and Flory
BOS balance of system
CB conduction band
CHP combined heat and power
COP coefficient of performance
CPV concentrated photovoltaic
dc direct current
DFT Density functional theory
DNI direct normal irradiation
ECL Electrogenerated chemiluminescence
EFG edge-defined film-fed growth
EIA Energy Information Administration
EO Electro-optic
EPV electrochemical photovoltaic
ETL Electron Injection/Transport Layer
HCPV high-concentration photovoltaic
HHV higher heating value
HRS Hyper-Rayleigh Scattering
IR infrared
ITO indium tin oxide
IZO Indium Zinc Oxide
LC Liquid crystal
LE Luminous Efficiency
LH1/LH2 light-harvesting pigment/protein complexes
MBE molecular beam epitaxy
MEG multiple exciton generation
MESP minimum ethanol selling price
MOCVD metalorganic chemical vapor deposition
MZI Mach-Zehnder Interferometer
NAE National Academy of Engineering
Nd:Yag Neodymium doped Ytrium aluminum garnet- a type of laser
NHE normal hydrogen electrode
NIR Near Infrared
NLO Non-linear optics
NRC National Research Council
OEC oxygen-evolving complex
OFET Organic field effect transistor
OLED organic light emitting diode
OPV organic photovoltaic (solar cell)
PCET proton-coupled electron transfer
PC Photonic crystal
PCM phase change storage material
PEC photoelectrochemical
PEM proton exchange membrane
PET Polyethylene terephthalate
PMMA Polymethylmethacrylate
PPV Polyphenylvinylene
PRD priority research directions
PT polythiophene
PV photovoltaic
R&D research and development
RC reaction center
SAML Self-assembled monolayers
SHG Second Harmonic Generation
SLO Spatial Light Modulation
TCO transparent conducting oxide
TCNL Thermochemical Nanolithography
TFT Thin-Film Transistor
THG Third Harmonic Generation
TM Transverse Mode
TMS theoretical modeling and simulation
TPA Two Photon Absorption
TPF Two Photon Fluoresence
TPV thermophotovoltaic
UPS Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy
U.S. United States
UV ultraviolet
WOLED White organic light-emitting diode
XAFS X-ray absorption fine-structure (spectroscopy)
XPS X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
ZT thermoelectric figure of merit

Variables and Constants


Symbol Meaning
c speed of light (c = 299,792,458 m/s approx 3 x 106m/s)
ν frequency
h planck's constant (h = 6.62606896x 10-34 J s = 4.135667 x 10-15eV s)
λ wavelength (visible spectrum is 400-700nm)

Absorption and Emission

Symbol Meaning
ε extinction coefficient of a molecule
Φ quantum yield
Ψ wave function

EO Properties

Symbol Meaning
μ dipole moment (mu) measured in debyes
α linear polarizability (alpha)
β first order hyperpolarizability (microscopic) (beta)
cos3θ order parameter
δ Two photo cross section measured in Goppert-Mayer units (GM), with 1 GM=1×10-50 cm4 s molecules−1 photon−1 >100gm is high.)
r Pockels coefficient or Linear Electo-optic Cofficient Pockels Effect r~ 10-12 – 1—10 m/V
r33 Electro-optic cofficient (chi 33)(FM= 1000 pm/V)
χ2 second-order nonlinear susceptiblity (first order hyperpolarizability) (macroscopic)
χ3 third-order nonlinear susceptiblity (second order hyperpolarizability) (macroscopic) (alpha)(FM= 6-7 x 10-21(m/V)2)
ε dielectric constant or relative static permittivity
M Transition dipole moment (measured in debyes)
N Number Density parameter
φfl Fluoresence Quantum Yield a ratio of photons absorbed over photons emitted
σ conductivity (measured in S (Siemens)/cm
t the electronic coupling, transfer integral or resonance integral
vπ half-wave driving voltage


Symbol Meaning
α material loss in dB/cm
d electrode separation
Γ optical electrical overlap
λ reorganization energy
μ charge mobility in cm2 / V s- a mobility >1 is considered good


Abbreviation Unit
°C degree(s) Celsius
$/kW dollar(s) per kilowatt
μm micrometer(s)
μs microsecond(s)
Å angstrom(s) (10-10m)
amp ampere(s)
as attaseconds- one quintillionth of a second
Bbl billion barrels
cm centimeter(s)
cm/min centimeter(s) per minute
eV electron volt(s)
fs femptosecond(s)
gal gallon(s)
Gha gigahectare(s)
GJ gigajoule(s)
Gtons gigatons (109 tons = 1 billion tons)
GW gigawatt(s) (109 W = 1 billion watts)
kg kilogram(s)
kWh kilowatt hour(s)
kWth kilowatt(s) (thermal)
K Kelvin
L liter(s)
MHz megahertz
mm millimeter(s)
MW megawatt(s) (106 W = 1 million watts)
MWe megawatt(s) (electric)
MWth megawatt(s) (thermal)
MW/yr megawatt(s) per year
nm nanometer(s)
nm/s nanometer(s) per second
ps picosecond(s)
psi pound(s) per square inch
s second(s)
TW terawatt(s) (1012 W = 1 trillion watts)
W watt(s)
Wp peak watt(s)
yr year(s)

Agencies, Programs and Institutions

DOE Department of Energy
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
NSDL National Science Digital Library aka National STEM Distributed Learning